School of Education and Human Development
Teacher Preparation and Special Education
LINGUISTIC APPLICATIONS IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE
The Graduate School of Education and Human Development at
the George Washington University is committed to providing the highest quality
of educational services to its students. We develop innovative research
programs, contribute in diverse ways to local communities and the nation and
actively participate in the international community of scholarship. Our unique
location in the nation’s capital, a vibrant, multicultural and multinational
center, offers a broad range of resources and opportunities to our diverse
students and faculty. We believe that continuous self-examination and
improvement are fundamental to the education and human development professions.
The Graduate School of Education and Human Development will
become nationally recognized for the creation and dissemination of knowledge in
areas related to education, human development and organizational studies. The
Graduate School of Education and the Human Development will be ranked with
other nationally recognized universities as a leader in developing
practitioners, scholars, and leaders in teaching, learning and human
development across the lifespan.
This course addresses the following bridging concepts:
1. Educational Leadership: preparing pre-service and
in-service teachers to take leadership positions in the school regarding CLD learners by applying evidence-based practices.
2. Reflective Practice: examining theories and practical strategies related to working with CLD students and using those theories and strategies to assess their own work with these students.
3. Research and Scholarship: supporting projects and writings using current research and scholarship.
4. Service to Multicultural Communities of Diverse
Learners: by becoming informed about the needs of CLD students and using
that knowledge to inform instruction and curriculum design.
|Frances Fuchs Early Childhood Center||Tuesdays and Thursdays 4:30pm-6:30pm|
|Instructor: Jill Robbins, Ph.D.||Class Blog: http://lingwuistics.blogspot.com/|
|Email: see printed resume or email||Website: http://jillrobbins.com/|
|Telephone: see printed resume or email||Office Hours: After class or by appointment.|
This course surveys the study of the science of language
(phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics) and how its
different branches (theoretical, social, applied, etc.) may be applied to ESL
classroom instruction, material development, assessment,
evaluation, research, and policy development.
1. Research and identify core concepts and terminology of descriptive linguistics, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics.
2. Identify classroom applications of descriptive linguistic concepts, including those related to speaking and writing.
3. Research and identify the biological, social, and cultural dimensions of linguistics, including pragmatics, discourse, dialects, bilingualism, and language in education.
4. Analyze a linguistics-related topic and its relevance to classroom/ ESOL instruction,
policy, programming, and related issues.
UNIVERSAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES
This course integrates the nine principles of universal
design for learning and instruction (UDL) in order to make it accessible and appropriate
for individuals with different backgrounds, learning styles, abilities and disabilities.
Principle 1: Equitable use. The projects assigned in this class are functional in nature and have immediate application to students’ current teaching assignments. Those who are not presently teaching will have opportunities to work with teachers and other practitioners during the guided portion of strategy learning so that their projects will have classroom application.
All students will be given detailed instructions and grading rubrics to inform them about how all work is to be done.
Principle 2: Flexibility in use. The needs of a diverse group of students will be met through multi-sensory instruction, Internet technology, PowerPoint presentations, handouts, material samples, readings, small and large groups discussions, and individual projects that include choices to accommodate students needs.
Principle 3: Simple and intuitive. The syllabus outlines the weekly instructional focus. Readings to be done previous to instruction are listed so that students will have the support of those readings to comprehend all lectures and hands-on instruction. Instruction is provided by lecture, video and through interactive activities.
Principle 4: Perceptible information. All lectures will be supported by visuals and hands-on experiences. Opportunities will be readily available for students to ask for additional information or clarification from the teacher.
Principle 5: Tolerance for error: Rubrics are provided to guide students during their coursework. Written feedback on projects and writing will also be given so that students may easily identify areas of need. Previous work will be spiraled into each project so that students have a chance to improve their products.
Principle 6: Low physical effort. Instruction maximizes attention to learning by incorporating projects and assignments that are functional and can be applied to students’ current or potential teaching situations.
Principle 7: Size and space for approach and use. The classroom
for this off-campus class was chosen with the large number of students in mind.
Although it is in an elementary building, the desks are of an appropriate size
for adult use. Seating is flexible and can be rearranged for collaborative
Principle 8: A community of learners. The students are working in
a cohort that promotes interactions, communication, and collegial sharing in a
community of learners.
Principle 9: Instructional climate. The instructional climate is
positive and inclusive. Students are expected to participate through
presentations, questions, comments, shared insights, experiences, and
discussions. Instructors are readily available for assistance and clarification
by email and phone.
Any student who feels s/he may need an accommodation based
on the impact of a disability should contact the instructor privately to
discuss specific needs. Please contact the Disability Support Services office
at 202-994-8250 in the Marvin Center, Suite 242, to establish eligibility and
to coordinate reasonable accommodations. For additional information please
refer to: GWired
In case of inclement weather or other emergency closing, we
will follow PGCPS. If PGCPS is closed or closes early, there will be NO class
meeting that day. In the event of a delayed start, class will continue as
scheduled. In addition, if George Washington University is closed due to
emergency, whether or not PGCPS is closed, there will be NO class meeting that
day. You can get emergency alerts online at https://www.gwu.edu/~gwalert/ or
subscribe to have them delivered to your e-mail, desktop, or phone.
All students should thoroughly review the syllabus, taking
note of class times and due dates for assignments. Should any student have
any issues or conflicts with any class times or assignments, please notify the
instructor in the first two weeks of class so the issue or conflict can be
Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., and Hyams, N. (2011). An introduction to language (9th ed.). Heinle Publishers. Note: Students may use 8th edition provided they check page numbers and exercises with a classmate. The
two editions DO have differences in exercises and page numbers. All assignments
use the numbering of the 9th edition. Indicated by “IL”
on assignment list.
Rickerson, E.M. & Hilton, B. (2006). The Five-Minute Linguist: Bite-sized Essays on Language and Languages; Edited by: E.M. Rickerson, Barry
Hilton, Equinox Publishing Ltd (August 18, 2006) ISBN-10: 184553199X, ISBN-13:
978-1845531997 Available online in podcast from
iTunesU – College of Charleston: http://itunes.apple.com/us/itunes-u/the-five-minute-linguist/id452255394 Indicated by “5min” on assignment list. Texts available
on professor’s website.
OPTIONAL RECOMMENDED TEXTS
Biber, D. Longman student grammar of spoken and written English. Pearson ESL; 1st edition
Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association, 5th edition (2001). New York:
American Psychological Association. This text can be ordered directly from the
APA at http://www.apastyle.org/pubmanual.html. You can view a tutorial online at this site.
APA STYLE REQUIREMENT
Please note that ALL ASSIGNMENTS must use APA
citation format unless otherwise specified. If you have questions about
what this entails, please see us for more information.
In addition, please note that ALL ASSIGNMENTS must be
completed in accord with the GWU Code of Academic Integrity (http://www.gwu.edu/~ntegrity/about.html). If you have questions about the code in general, or about a particular
assignment, it is your responsibility to contact your instructor/s before
turning in the work in question. No credit will be given for work that does
not follow the GWU Code of Academic Integrity.
CLASS MEETING SCHEDULE
Note: The chart below lists the topics which will be covered each week.
|Topic||Assignment discussed (note: read ahead a week for your
assignment for the coming week) For exercises,
choose one from those suggested to submit for credit.
|IntroductionsTalk with Ms. Kathy Zentek from the PGCPS ESOL
office Overview of the courseWhat is linguistics?Why should language teachers study linguistics?Major subfields of linguistics
|IL: Chapter 1, 1- 175min: What does it mean to be bilingual?How do you keep languages in a museum?|
|Thursday,April 26th||Grammar ReviewOrganization of presentationsSociolinguisticsDialect variation||Longman Student Grammar & Online Grammar Review:
http://www.quia.com/pages/tred256.htmlIL: Chapter 10: Language in Society (430-452)Exercises: 2, 11, 14, 19,
24Optional: “Do You Speak American?” Webquest: Choose an area of the website: http://www.pbs.org/speak/. Read about
the topic and listen to any related speech or video clips. Come ready to
discuss what you found with the class.5min: Are Dialects Dying in the US?Do All Southerners Have the Same Dialect?Is Pidgin English just Bad English?
|Brain and Language: Modularity; Autonomy; Brain
|IL: Chapter 2 Brain and LanguageExercises 5, 7, 8, 9, 135min: How many languages is it possible for a person to speak?What don’t we know about language?|
|Thursday,May 3rd||Morphology: Minimal Units of Meaning; Rules of Word
Formation; Sign Language Morphology; Word Coinage; Inflectional morphemes
|IL: Chapter 3 MorphologyExercises 2, 3, 4, 55min: What was the First Language?Is Sign Language Really a Language?|
|PhoneticsInternational Phonetic Alphabet||IL: Chapter 6Exercises 3, 4, 6, 10, 125min: How are the Sounds of Language Made?What is Cajun and where did it come from?|
pairs, phonemes, allophones, complementary distribution/prosody/natural
classes/ age and SLA/ Critical Period Hypothesis
|IL: Chapter 7Exercises 1, 4, 6, 11, 135min: Does Anybody Here Speak Klingon?|
|Syntax Part 1 Guest Lecturer||IL: Chapter 4, pp. 117-145 Exercises 3, 5, 12, 175min: Do all languages have the same grammar?|
|Thursday,May 17th||Syntax part 2 p. 142 – 169Guest Lecturer||IL: Chapter 4 145 – 160 Exercises 20, 21, 23, 265min: #17 What’s the right way to put words together?|
|Test Questions dueChapter 5 Part 1: Semantics (p. 182-199Applications Presentations Academic Language||IL: Chapter 5 (p. 182-199)Exercises 5, 6, 7, 8, 105min: What does it take to be an interpreter?|
|Thursday,May 24th||Grammar TestLinguistics test(Take home)Applications Presentations||Grammar text5min: Is Japanese Worth Studying? Is Chinese the Most Difficult Language in
|Chapter 5 Part 2: Pragmatics
(p. 199–207)Applications presentations
|Chapter 5 (p. 207-217)Exercises: 16, 17, 18, 19|
|Thursday,May 31st||Language AcquisitionTeaching ELLsLanguage AssessmentTake-home test dueApplications presentations||IL: Chapter 8 324-350, 357-367Exercises 2, 3, 5, 7|
|Writing SystemsL1 writing and L2 reading interferenceFinal assignments due||IL: Chapter 12 (only 547-562)Exercises: 4, 7, 12, 13|
|Thursday,June 7th||Wrap up, Applications presentations, Evaluations, Praxis
ASSIGNMENTS AND GRADING:
Attendance and participation constitute a significant
portion of the grade in this course. We reserve the right to adjust your grade
a half-letter grade up or down (A to A-, etc.) for exceptional issues related
to participation or professionalism. This is in addition to the percentage
allotted to attendance and participation in the following breakdown.
|Attendance and Participation||15||Ongoing|
|Linguistic Exercises (8 of 12 possible)||24||Ongoing|
|Exercise presentation and discussion/demonstration in
|16||Sign-ups during 1st week of class|
|Teaching Demonstration||25||As chosen in sign-ups|
*In the event of extenuating circumstances
(protracted medical emergency, family issues, etc.), please contact the
instructor to discuss alternative assignments and procedures as soon as
Attendance and Participation (15 points):
*Please note that for the purpose of this course,
professionalism includes attendance, punctuality, participation in class, full
collaboration on group projects, and completion of assignments on time.
Non-compliance will adversely impact your grade. No papers will be accepted
beyond the due date unless the professor is contacted prior to the day that the
assignment is due, and special arrangements are made. Students are allowed
one excused absence before grading penalties are assessed. The participation rubric provides details on this
Linguistic Exercises (24 points)
Throughout the course you will complete linguistic exercises
from the book. You will be responsible for 8
of the 11 total exercises. My preference is that you submit your linguistic
exercises electronically via the class blog, http://lingwuistics.blogspot.com/.
Email is another option. Please use the following file naming system: ASSIGNMENTNAME_YOURLASTNAME. For
example “CHAPTER6EXERCISES_ROBBINS”). Electronic submissions are
due by 4:30 p.m. on their due date unless otherwise noted. When possible, I
will designate the last ten minutes of class time each week as time to begin
working with partners or in groups. Each student must turn in individual
exercises, but students are encouraged to work together on the exercises, and
ask questions of the professor and their classmates. The primary purpose of
doing linguistics exercises is to gain familiarity with the elements of
language that are most likely to have instructional ramifications for ELLs. The
secondary purpose of these activities is to gain proficiency in areas of
linguistics and language that are likely to appear on the Praxis II exam.
Expert group presentation (16 points)
Each class meeting, a pair or small group of students will
be responsible for going over the exercises due that day at the beginning of
class. These students will post their exercise solutions and links on the class
blog, http://lingwuistics.blogspot.com/ Each member of the group will also be responsible for presenting one outside
resource relevant to the topic for that class. The requirements and evaluation
criteria for this assignment are described in the assignment sheet.
Final Exam (20 points)
A short-answer test to assess your understanding of concepts
and terminology related to descriptive linguistics (morphology, syntax,
semantics, phonetics, phonology). This test is designed to prepare you for
linguistics questions on the PRAXIS examination, as well as to encourage
development of language data analysis and problem solving skills.
Teaching Demonstration (25 points)
This assignment is designed to integrate the use of
technology into a content-focused lesson for the purpose of increasing
linguistic accessibility for English Language Learners. The aim is for the
students to have an interactive learning experience for increased language
learning and retention. In addition, this assignment should connect theory with
practice through the use of technology, multimedia, or creative instructional
techniques or activities. Each student will present a mini-lesson, where his or
her classmates act as the audience. In addition, each student will provide a
copy of their lesson plan to each classmate and the instructor. Students may
use any format for lesson planning that they are most comfortable with, but the
plan must include a section describing at least two scholarly articles, books,
or book chapters (theoretical or research-based) that support their techniques. Each student will be allotted no more than 15 minutes to
conduct their lesson.
Important Information Regarding Any Class Assignments or
Please be aware, if
you choose to collect student information, that there are regulations for
safeguarding student privacy and confidentiality and gaining student/parent
consent. We will discuss the GWU’s research requirements, and requirements for
obtaining IRB approval if you wish to collect and share information beyond the
classroom, in this class. As PGCPS teachers, you are responsible for gaining
PGCPS approval and/ or student/ parent consent if your research involves
sharing any identifiable student-level data, or any other activities for which
PGCPS requires research approval. Please know that, while program staff can
offer suggestions or advice about the research process, your staff and
instructors are NOT ABLE TO ADVISE YOU ABOUT THE PGCPS RESEARCH APPROVAL
PROCESS AND ARE NOT QUALIFIED TO DO SO.
Class Participation Rubric
Class participation is worth
15% of your grade, or 15/100 total points. Participation is often one of
the more nebulous areas in any grading process—particularly when
considered in the light of differing communication styles, learning styles, and
equitable practice issues. In order to attempt to address this aspect of
the class grade as objectively as possible, expectations are listed on the
rubric below. As always, please let me know if you have questions.
|Attendance||One or fewer absences*. Two
or fewer instances of unexcused lateness.
|One or fewer absences and
three or more instances of unexcused lateness.
|Two absences and two or
fewer instances of unexcused lateness.
|Two absences and three or
more instances of unexcused lateness.
|Three absences||Four or more absences|
|Professionalism||All work is turned in on
time, or extensions are arranged beforehand.Professional courtesy is
exhibited in class at all times (no texting, no cell phone use, no sleeping, no
completing other work, no side conversations).
|All work is turned in on
time, or extensions are arranged beforehand. Professional courtesy is
exhibited in class on a majority of occasions (with one or two exceptions)
|Most work is turned in on
time (one or more instances of unexcused late work). Professional
courtesy is exhibited in class at all times.
|Most work is turned in on
time (one or more instances of unexcused late work). Professional
courtesy is exhibited in class on a majority of occasions (with one or two
|Work is turned in late or
not at all. Professional courtesy is exhibited in class on all or a
majority of occasions.
|Work is turned in late or
not at all. Consistent (daily or near-daily) lack of professional
courtesy is observed.
|Class Contributions||Three or more of the
following criteria are completed on a consistent basis (daily or whenever
opportunities presented):–Verbal participation in
whole-class discussions each class–Volunteering for additional
jobs (recorder, researcher, etc.) in small groups and/or whole class
outside research to enrich cohort discussionsat least three times throughout semester and sharing
results in class –Sharing resources with
cohort through emailing, posting, or passing out articles/ links/ websites of
interest at least twice during semester
|Three or more of the
criteria are completed on a fairly consistent basis (about 50% of the time
opportunities are presented)
|Two of the criteria are
completed on a consistent basis (daily or whenever opportunities are
|Two of the criteria are
completed on a fairly consistent basis (about 50% of the time opportunities
|One or none of the criteria
is completed on a consistent basis
|One or none of the criteria
is completed. Contributions are not consistent.