George Lakoff & Mark Johnson –
Metaphors We Live By
How basic is metaphor to our conceptual system? Do our metaphors define our reality?
ARGUMENT IS WAR (But it could be dance!)
Is this why pacifists don’t like to argue?
TIME IS MONEY (i.e., a valuable commodity)
Michael Reddy – the Conduit Metaphor:
- IDEAS (Of MEANINGS) ARE OBJECTS.
- LINGUISTIC EXPRESSIONS ARE CONTAINERS.
- COMMUNICATION IS SENDING.
“The speaker puts ideas (objects) into words (containers) and sends them (along a conduit) to a bearer who takes the idea/objects out of the word/containers.” (p. 10)
What does the conduit metaphor mask?
What doesn’t this metaphor fit?
Work done by William Nagy (1974) (Ph.D. Dissertation)
Experiential Bases of Metaphors
- What does it mean for a metaphor to have an experiential basis?
- Metaphors are not arbitrary
What is the physical basis of these metaphors?
HAPPY IS UP; SAD IS DOWN.
CONSCIOUS IS UP; UNCONSCIOUS IS DOWN
HEALTH AND LIFE ARE UP
SICKNESS AND DEATH ARE DOWN
HAVING CONTROL OR FORCE IS UP
BEING SUBJECT TO CONTROL OR FORCE IS DOWN
MORE IS UP; LESS IS DOWN
FORESEEABLE FUTURE EVENTS ARE UP (AND AHEAD)
HIGH STATUS IS UP; LOW STATUS IS DOWN
GOOD IS UP; BAD IS DOWN
VIRTUE IS UP; DEPRAVITY IS DOWN
RATIONAL IS UP; EMOTIONAL IS DOWN
Metaphor is consistent, not random
Another Kind of Coherence: Cultural
Values are evident in metaphors
Interesting reference (p. 24) to cultures where up-down is not a priority; where passive is better than active. (Buddhism?)
ENTITY AND SUBSTANCE METAPHORS
INFLATION IS AN ENTITY
- Identifying aspects
- Identifying causes
- Setting goals and motivating actions
THE MIND IS A MACHINE
THE MIND IS A BRITTLE OBJECT
Land areas: human-imposed boundaries; political maps
The visual field: what we see is a territory
Events, Actions, Activities and States
Non-human entities given human motivations & characteristics
“Technology is stealing my job”